To investigate the association between the presence of type 1 choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and the localized progression of atrophy in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Analysis of patients' data collected in the context of 2 noninterventional, prospective studies conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Bonn, Germany. ve quiescent CNV (n=7), RPE atrophy with a history of exudative CNV (n=10), and RPE atrophy without evidence of coexisting CNV (n=81). Retinal pigment epithelium atrophy was delineated on the basis of serial fundus-autofluorescence and infrared-reflectance images. If CNV was detected by OCT angiography (OCTA), its location and dimension were spatially mapped to RPE atrophy. The localized progression of RPE atrophy in topographic relation to the CNV lesion was then analyzed using mixed-effects logistic regression. The spatial overlap (Dice coefficient) between predicted and observed RPE atrophy progression was evaluated to estimate the model accuracy. Odds ratio (OR) for localized RPE atrophy progression in areas overlying type 1 CNV. ve quiescent type 1 CNV and by a factor of 0.46 (95% CI, 0.41-0.51) in the presence of exudative type 1 CNV. The results indicate that there is markedly reduced RPE atrophy progression in areas co-localizing with quiescent and exudative type 1 CNV. This observation is compatible with a potential protective effect of type 1 CNV on the RPE and overlying neurosensory retina. These results may have relevant clinical implications for the management of CNV and lead to new therapeutic strategies to prevent atrophy progression.