AI-based structure-function correlation in age-related macular degeneration


Sensitive and robust outcome measures of retinal function are pivotal for clinical trials in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A recent development is the implementation of artificial intelligence (AI) to infer results of psychophysical examinations based on findings derived from multimodal imaging. We conducted a review of the current literature referenced in PubMed and Web of Science among others with the keywords ‘artificial intelligence’ and ‘machine learning’ in combination with ‘perimetry’, ‘best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA)’, ‘retinal function’ and ‘age-related macular degeneration’. So far AI-based structure-function correlations have been applied to infer conventional visual field, fundus-controlled perimetry, and electroretinography data, as well as BCVA, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROM). In neovascular AMD, inference of BCVA (hereafter termed inferred BCVA) can estimate BCVA results with a root mean squared error of ~7-11 letters, which is comparable to the accuracy of actual visual acuity assessment. Further, AI-based structure-function correlation can successfully infer fundus-controlled perimetry (FCP) results both for mesopic as well as dark-adapted (DA) cyan and red testing (hereafter termed inferred sensitivity). Accuracy of inferred sensitivity can be augmented by adding short FCP examinations and reach mean absolute errors (MAE) of ~3-5 dB for mesopic, DA cyan and DA red testing. Inferred BCVA, and inferred retinal sensitivity, based on multimodal imaging, may be considered as a quasi-functional surrogate endpoint for future interventional clinical trials in the future. .

Eye (Lond)