Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of irreversible vision loss among individuals older than 50 years. Although considerable advances have been made in our understanding of AMD genetics, the differential effects of major associated loci on disease manifestation and progression may not be well characterized. To elucidate the specific associations of the 2 most common genetic risk loci for AMD, the CFH-CFHR5 locus on chromosome 1q32 (Chr1) and the ARMS2/HTRA1 locus on chromosome 10q26 (Chr10)-independent of one another and in combination-with time to conversion to late-stage disease and to visual acuity loss. 10-risk) or at either Chr1 (Chr1-risk) or Chr10 (Chr10-risk) and who had enrolled in Genetic and Molecular Studies of Eye Diseases at the Sharon Eccles Steele Center for Translational Medicine between September 2009 and March 2020. Multimodal imaging data were reviewed for AMD staging, including grading of incomplete and complete retinal pigment epithelium and outer retinal atrophy. Hazard ratios and survival times for conversion to any late-stage AMD, atrophic or neovascular, and associated vision loss of 2 or more lines. .05) times as likely to experience a visual acuity loss of 2 or more lines compared with eyes of the Chr1-risk group (median [IQR] survival, 9.4 [4.1-* (asterisk indicates event rate did not reach 75%)] years). These findings suggest differential associations of the 2 major AMD-related risk loci with structural and functional disease progression and suggest distinct underlying biological mechanisms associated with these 2 loci. These genotype-phenotype associations may warrant consideration when designing and interpreting AMD research studies and clinical trials.